e your pipe consists of material intended for extreme temperatures. Otherwise, you risk damaging or corroding your pipes and contaminating the liquids inside of them. In some cases, extreme temperatures can break your piping entirely, resulting in expensive repairs, damaged product and hazardous workplace conditions. Metal pipe material is usually suitable for extremely hot liquids, although you and your employees should exercise caution when working with them. Depending on the temperature, aluminum is often used to transport cryogenic liquids.
If any part of your fluid handling system is exposed outdoors, you need piping material that can withstand environmental elements. External elements that could lead to the deterioration or corrosion of your fluid handling piping include UV light, corrosive soil, precipitation and other atmospheric conditions.
Certain piping materials will only have a few valve and fitting sizes to choose from, so you may need to eliminate some options based on this factor. Some of the valve and fitting types you can choose from include:
Carbon steel pipes and steel alloys are created using different manufacturing methods to provide multiple piping material options all made from steel. Steel is a desirable piping material because of its thickness and ability to contain highly pressurized fluids. Two common types of steel piping materials for manufacturing facilities are:
These pipes must also be regularly maintained, as dirt and debris can easily stick to the insides of concrete pipes and cause a backup. Depending on the type of material the pipes are carrying, a sewage or stormwater backup could be very hazardous to the surrounding areas. Most manufacturing facilities would not benefit from using concrete piping for their fluid handling systems.
For most standard manufacturing facilities and other industrial applications, there are several benefits of plastic-lined pipe and fittings. Some of the most notable advantages of this type of pipe material include:
It has been taken as the instructions for selecting the qualified material of carbon and low-alloy steels, corrosion resistant alloy steels and other alloy materials that against in the H2S contained environments. Meanwhile, the standard also suitable for API, ASTM, ASME and ANSI etc.,
MR0175 standards of general material requirements for selecting of cracking-resistant material, cracking-resistant carbon and low-alloys steels, cast irons, cracking-resistant alloys and other alloys. And details requirements for H2S containing equipment.
To choose the NACE material in these working conditions: such as water treatment equipment, sucker rods and liquid pump etc. All these products have detailed specifications, but not belong NACE MR0175 standards scope.
When deciding which pipe system is best for an application, the material is usually the main focus. A range of piping materials, including metallic piping (e.g., carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, titanium and zirconium), plastic piping (e.g., PVC, CPVC, PP, and PVDF), composite piping (e.g., FRP and advanced composites), and lined piping (e.g., plastic or glass-lined metal or plastic-lined FRP), are used to meet specific process piping application requirements. Industrial and chemical process plastic piping is typically Schedule 80 (SCH 80) with greater wall thickness and pressure/temperature operating range than SCH 40 piping (commonly used for domestic applications).
First, evaluate the chemical compatibility with the material choice, taking into consideration the expected fluid properties and system design life. The selection of piping system materials requires careful evaluation of all possible internal fluid scenarios (including range of typical operations, operating extremes, and start-up, shutdown, and upset conditions) and external exposure and environmental factors. It is not uncommon to have widely varying conditions inside a process piping system. There may be large swings in pressure, flow, temperature, pH, chemical concentrations, or other factors that may affect the piping and other wetted components. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential minimum and maximum extremes and compare them with the pipe and component ratings. Reviewing these potential conditions may well avoid a costly accident in the future.
Scenario 2: The water flow stops and the dosing pump continues to pump acid, dropping the pH in the area of the injector to levels low enough to damage the material of the pipe or elastomers. This is an instance where the design fluid properties after mixing would suggest the materials were suitable, but the unexpected extreme drop in pH caused the piping to degrade and fail.
Secondly, when evaluating material suitability for the maximum design temperature and pressure, it is critical to review both together rather than independently. Pressure ratings on piping are temperature-dependent, as the material strength (most importantly, tensile) drops with temperature increases, reducing the total pressure the material can withstand before failure. Often, pipe manufacturers will publish a table with a maximum working pressure for each size pipe at 70 to 80F. For temperatures higher than this, a table is usually provided with derating factors which must always be used to check the pipe selection for an application. It is important to remember that the average conditions are not sufficient to verify correct material selection; maximums must be considered, even if they are rare. In some cases (e.g., for some plastics), minimum temperatures and durations are important, as some materials can embrittle at low end temperatures at or below freezing and become more susceptible to damage/failure.
Many systems will require pipe materials to change in certain sections depending on the environment they are to be used. For piping transitions between dissimilar metals, galvanic corrosion may result due to the electromotive force generated by the galvanic cell from the dissimilar metals. This can be minimized by using a nonconductive barrier such as a dielectric union.
This process is exactly the same as the previous process, with a table and the maximum WSFUs for each pipe size. Except, the table can be customized for any pipe material, tank or flush valve and for any range of velocities and pressure drops. The previous process determined the maximum WSFUs for a pipe size based on some random velocity limitation and/or pressure loss limitation. However, higher velocities can be accommodated in certain areas where water hammer and noise are not an issue. Higher pressure drops can also be accommodated on piping that is not part of the hydraulically remote run.
Brazing is the joining of two materials using a third dissimilar material. This differs from soldering because it uses a higher temperature for melting the filler material. The brazing process is fairly similar to the soldering process. However, brazing occurs in the range between 1200 and 1550 F while soldering occurs below 840 F. Brazing is required when routing piping in the slab, according to UPC soldered joints on copper lines run under a slab are restricted. When running copper under a slab, wrought copper fittings are required and all joints must be brazed.
Each pipe material and pipe type within that pipe material have its own standard pipe sizes. For example, Schedule 40 Steel does not have a 5/8 inch pipe size. When you change pipe materials and pipe types, please also change the pipe size to ensure the pipe size you want is available within the standard. The calculator will give you an error if you select a non-standard pipe size within the pipe material & type.
There are two standards that govern ABS piping, (1) ASTM D 1527 and ASTM D 2282. ASTM D 1527 is titled Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80. ASTM D 2282 is titled Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, SDR-PR. These two standards give the dimensions and tolerances for the various ABS pipe types.
The pressure ratings for ABS piping are determined by the pipe diameter, pipe thickness and the pipe material. Although the pipe material is ABS, there are different classes within the overall ABS pipe material family. The typical ABS pipe classes include ABS2112, ABS1316, ABS1210 and ABS1208. ABS 2112 is the strongest, then ABS1316, followed by ABS1210 and finally ABS1208. The burst pressure for these materials and SDR combinations are shown below.
Brass piping is in some cases an approved potable water piping and was popular in the past, but it has been replaced by materials that are easier to work with and usually provide longer service. There are two types of brass piping, (1) regular strength and (2) extra strength. The extra strength brass has thicker walls, which allows this pipe to have a higher allowable working pressure. The table below shows the dimensions of brass regular and extra strength piping. As you can see the inner diameter for extra strength piping is slightly less than the equivalent regular strength pipe size. This is due to the increased pipe thickness.
There are two standards that govern the dimensions of CPVC piping. These standards are ASTM F441 and ASTM F442. The first standard provides dimensions in the Schedule format and the second standard in the SDR format.
Type Medical Gas: This type has an internal cleanliness requirement that meets the standards for piping conveying oxygen, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, medical compressed air or other gases used in medical facilities. This type should not be used for pressurized water, so it is not included in the Domestic Water Piping Calculator.
ASTM F 876 is the standard that specifies the material properties and the dimensions for PEX tube. ASTM F 877 is the standard that specifies the performance requirements for a PEX system, tube and fittings together. PEX tube is typically manufactured according to SDR-9. The dimensions for PEX SDR-9 are shown in the below table. The manufacturing method does not matter for the dimensions, since PEX-a, b, c are all manufactured to the same dimensions. 59ce067264